CBSE Guide on Class 9 Social Science Project - Poverty

In this article we have tried to help the CBSE class 9 students by providing them ideas on how to write a CBSE Class 9 Social Science Project on poverty. We hope you will like it and show your support to this website of yours.


I sincerely thank all those who helped me with constructive ideas related to this project. I also owe special thanks to my SST teacher for assigning me this project and guiding me. I would also like to thank the following people to share the credit because without their help this project was not possible. They are my parents and my friends. I express my gratitude towards them.


It provides me great pleasure to present this project based on poverty. In this project, you will come to know what poverty really is. It includes causes, effects and impacts of poverty and how it is a threat to nation, the solution to these problems and the way to remove poverty. I have given my best efforts to make it neat and clean and have written it in simple and understandable language.


Poverty is an economic condition in which a person lacks sufficient resources to obtain minimum levels of health services, housing, food, clothing and education which are generally recognized as necessary elements to ensure a standard of living. Poverty is of two types:

Relative Poverty

Relative poverty is the kind of poverty experienced by people whose income falls considerably below the average for their particular society.

Absolute Poverty

Absolute poverty is that kind of poverty in which is experienced by those who do not have enough food to remain healthy. About forty percent of world’s population lives in poverty.

Approximately 72% of India’s population lives in rural areas. Though living standards in many areas have improved, most people are still poor. About one third of the population lives on or below the poverty line.

Terms Related to Poverty

  1. Poverty - Poverty is the state of being poor. It is a situation in which people are deprived of food, clothing, shelter, education and proper health care.
  2. Poverty line - It is the minimum income needed for the necessities of life. According to United Nations, people having less than $1 per day income are considered to be poor.
  3. Poverty trap - It is a situation in which an increase of income incurs a loss of state benefits, making real improvement impossible.
  4. Poverty stricken - It is a term used for those who are very poor or deprived of basic necessities.
  5. Vulnerability - It is a greater probability of being more adversely affected in case of disasters than other people.

Poverty Line

It is an imaginary line or boundary which is used as a way to measure poverty. A common method used to measure poverty is based on income or corruption levels. A person is considered poor if his or her income or consumption level falls below a given minimum level. While determining the poverty line in India, footware, clothing, fuel and light educational and medical requirements, food requirement etc, the minimum of all are determined for subsistence. In India, poverty line for rural areas was fixed at Rs. 328 for the year 2000 and Rs. 425 for urban areas per person per month. International poverty line was fixed at $1 per person per day by the World Bank. The poverty line estimation is done periodically using sample surveys every five years.

Causes of Poverty

The poverty stricken population usually is a single mother with her children and that accounts for about one third of all the poor people in world. Other groups disproportionately represented below poverty line are people with disabilities and those who are dependent on them. It also includes large families and families in which the principle wage earner is either unemployed or works on very low wages. Lack of educational opportunities is another huge cause behind poverty. In the developed world, a larger percentage of black people than white people are poor. The main reason behind this is the heritage of inferior education among black people. Much of the world’s poverty can be credited to overpopulation. Due to this less number of employment opportunities gave rise to poverty in India, for instance. Poverty is also caused because of low level of economic development; developing nations like India and China where despite substantial recent industrialization, the poverty ratios have remained constant.

Economic Survey - Ministry of Finance, Gov. of India
  Poverty Ratio Number of Poor (in Millions)
Year Rural Urban Combined Rural Urban Combined
1973-74 56.4% 49.0% 54.9% 261 60 321
1993-94 37.3% 32.4% 36.4% 244 76 320
1999-00 27% 23.6% 26.1% 193 67 260


Impacts of Poverty on Environment

Just like inefficient economies and industries have negative impact on environment, so does poverty. Those who live in poverty do not have the luxury of using what resources they have to in a sustainable manner. Thus, they are usually forced to exploit the environment against the limited choice of their food and fuel. Deforestation, soil erosion and desertification can be associated with extreme poverty. Environmental degradation and poverty are strongly intertwined. This results in a vicious cycle in which environmental stress causes poverty which in turn causes environmental problems. Unequal distribution or shortage of land forces the poor to marginal environment. The pressure on land by the growing population leads to a lot of environmental problems. Extreme poverty also causes inefficient and excessive consumption of energy.

Abolish Poverty

The current anti-poverty strategy of the government is based on two plans –

  1. Promotion of economic growth
  2. Targeted anti-poverty programs

Following are the measures to reduce poverty –

  1. More industrialization - In order to remove poverty and unemployment, especially in cities, more and more industries are to be installed.
  2. Improvement in the field of agriculture - While latest methods should be adopted to improve agriculture, steps should be taken so that land is provided to the tiller and landlords do not get their hands on land in a concentrated manner.
  3. Education - It is a must for removing unemployment and thus poverty. It must be made cheaper and in some cases, free, so that every person could get it easily.

Anti-Poverty Measures

There are multiple anti-poverty measures taken by the government. Some of them are –

  1. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA) - It was passed in the month of September, 2005. This act promises employment for hundred days every year to every rural household in two hundred districts.
  2. National Food for Work Programme - Launched in 2004, in 150 most backward districts of the country the programme is open to all poor people living in rural areas who are in need of wage employment and have the desire to do unskilled manual work.
  3. Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana - It was started in 1993 with the aim of creating self employment opportunities for educated unemployed youth in rural areas.
  4. Rural Employment Generation Programme - It was launched in 1985, its aim was to create self employment opportunities in small towns and rural areas. A target of creating 25 lakh jobs had been set under this programme for the tenth five year plan.
  5. Swarn Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana - It was launched in the year 1999 aiming at bringing the assisted poor families above the poverty line by organizing them into self-help groups through a mix of bank credit and government subsidies.
  6. Antyodaya Anna Yojana - It was launched in the year 2000 on 1st of April. Its aim was to provide food security of 10 kg of food grains free of cost per month to those who could not afford.


Poverty is the state of being poor. Generally being poor means no access to food, clothing and shelter but today poverty also includes no access to education. People without access to health services can be considered poor as well. Poverty reduction is possible only by growth in economy, increasing stress on universal free elementary education, declining population growth, increasing empowerment of women and economically weaker sections of society. The world has the ability to end poverty and with that major threat to the well being of people will end. When the poor are given opportunities and means to come out of the vicious cycle in which poverty holds them, only then real sustainable development will become possible.





helped a lot . . . =)

nyc 1..!!!

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